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How To Naturally Cure Skin Tags, Moles, Warts, Blackheads, And Age Spots

Skin diseases and problems are quite common in people of all age groups and the treatment for them can be pretty delicate.

Skin tags, moles, warts, age spots, and blackheads are some of the skin diseases you may be facing, although there are about 3,000 different skin issues one can experience.

Every skin change, in color, texture or smell could be a potential health problem, and you need to act quickly to treat it. Pharmaceutical meds are available for use and treatment, but can sometimes act harshly and aggressively on the skin.

To protect yourself from skin irregularities and from chemical medications, there are a few homemade recipes that can get you a healthy and glowing skin in no time.

Below you will find some of the most effective , which are both cheap and effective:

  1. However, you can get rid of moles by using crushed garlic topically and letting it act for four hours a day. Another solution you can try is apple cider vinegar- it doesn’t have the power of the garlic, but it can be useful. Here are the best home remedies for treating moles:

    • Garlic

    Either garlic extract or raw garlic can be very productive for mole treatment. Make sure to clear the skin around the mole with masking tape or petroleum jelly. For a more natural option choose beeswax and oil instead of petroleum jelly. Apply topically and bandage the mole. Repeat until you see positive results.

    • Castor Oil and Baking Soda
    • Mix both ingredients until they form a paste and apply topically onto mole. Bandage area and leave paste to work overnight. The following morning, rinse skin well. Repeat each night until you see improvement.
    • Apple Cider Vinegar

    Use a cotton ball soaked in apple cider vinegar and apply directly on the mole. Bandage the area and leave the ACV to act for eight hours. Repeat until mole begins to darken and falls off.

    1. WartsSmall, but tricky- warts are derived as a result of the human papillomavirus or HPV. Normally the treatment involves salicylic acid or freezing. In some cases, wrapping warts into duct tape is also helpful. However, here are other treatments that might help you get rid of warts:
    2. BananasMolesMoles occur on the skin but do not represent a serious health threat. When a mole begins to change in color or size, it may be a clear symptom of cancer.

      Bananas may be the fastest way for a wart-free skin. Rub wart with banana peel every night and repeat treatment until the wart disappears. It usually takes up to two weeks to see results.

    3. Pure Raw Honey
    4. Raw honey, rubbed directly on the wart can be a very effective way to dispose of it. Wrap skin with bandage after applying it. When warts are treated with raw honey, they have very small changes of reoccurring.
      • Apple Cider Vinegar

      Apply apple cider vinegar each night onto wart by using a cotton ball soaked in the liquid. Bandage area and leave it overnight. Rinse and repeat process until the wart fades.

      • Garlic

      Garlic can deal with warts in only 14 days, if used raw or juiced. Rub garlic onto wart each night and wrap area well. For best results, apply garlic juice twice a day.

      1. Skin Tags

      Skin tags usually surface on the skin around your neck, upper chest, underarms, and eyelids. Skin rubbing is the most common cause for skin tags to occur. Standardly, they are treated with tying off, cutting off, and freezing. But, here are some more natural and mellow ways to deal with them:

      • Apple Cider Vinegar

      Use a cotton ball soaked in ACV and squeezed from extra liquid. Tap the affected area and leave it on for some ime. It takes a couple of days for the skin tag to darken and fall off.

      • Tea Tree Oil

      Add tea tree oil drops on a water-soaked cotton ball. Press on affected area and bandage well. Repeat treatment 2-3 times per day for a whole month. If you are persistent the effects will be great.

      • Baking Soda and Castor Oil

      This mixture also comes in handy for treating skin tags. For a paste by mixing both ingredients and apply on skin tag. Bandage well and repeat process 2-3 times a day. Store paste in fridge for the next 48 hours.

      1. Dark Spots

      Dark spots on the skin come with age and may appear on the limbs or the face. The cause for this skin occurrence is not clear, although it is linked with liver irregularities and sun exposure.

      Here is how you can treat them: Age spots or dark spots are discolored patches on the skin on the face, hands and forearms. Although their cause is still not clear, many doctors believe that they occur as a result of sun exposure and an aging liver. Here is what you can use to treat them:

      • Lemon

      Lemon has properties that are able to fade the dark spots. Soak a cotton ball and rub on dark spots two times a day.

      • Aloe Vera

      Use raw Aloe Vera on dark spot and let it act for 30 minutes. You can grow this plant at home and apply the gel inside the leaves.

      • Onion

      Onions are very healthy for many purposes, and removing dark spots in one of them. Juice or blend onion and apply directly onto dark spot. Let remedy soak for 10-15 minutes, and then rinse well. Repeat until dark spots fade.

      • Horseradish

      To get best effects, mix horseradish with vinegar and apply onto dark spot on a daily basis. In time, you will notice improvement and the dark spot will vanish.

      • Vitamin C Serums

      Homemade Vitamin C serums are ideal for removing dark spots. Apply topically onto dark spots and results will follow shortly. This is also good for eliminating other damaged skin tissue as well.

      1. Cleansing Clogged Pores

      When the skin is in contact with outer dirt the pores tend to get clogged and the skin breathing is interrupted. To get glowing and soft skin, without any inflammation, here is what you can do:

      • Sugar Scrub

      Form a paste from mixing sugar and lemon. Rub onto skin with organic cotton ball. Use circular motion to massage skin. Once done, rinse well with warm water.

      • Steaming

      Water steam can be very productive in providing you with shiny and cleansed skin. First, you’re your face well. Place face over boiling water. Cover head with a towel, for ultimate effect.

      Steam for 10 to 15 minutes. Make sure to be exposed to the steam as much as possible. When done, wash face and rinse well with lukewarm water. To remove any extra dirt, apply vinegar.

       

 

You Can Not Sleep, You have Brittle Nails and Your Hair Falls a Lot? Here’s What You’re Missing!

Fatigue and insomnia may cause problems with the adrenal glands, the glands that produce stress hormones. Tiredness, thinning hair, brittle nails, and weight gain – you probably have a thyroid problem, a gland that produces hormones.

Brazilian walnuts and leaves of parsley should be grind and after that you need to add dried raisins and honey with a little bit of grated ginger, all should be mixed in optimal mixture and every morning and half hour before meals you should consume two tablespoons of this remedy.

These are foods full of B vitamins and iron which will help to regulate the balance of yourbody very quicklyand in a natural way.

The hair and nails will be stronger, and if you lose weight or gain some because of this problem, everything will come at its own place.

If necessary, repeat mixture.

 

Press THESE Points And Get Rid Of Headache Without Taking Medicine

A headache can be very annoying and painful. Though we can take medicines to relieve the pain but they have many side effects and the relief is temporary. Acupressure can provide you an instant relief and is easy to practice.Acupressure is a traditional medicine practiced in China for thousands of year. Traditionally, needles are poked in the skin to put pressure on certain points of our body but you can also press these points with your fingers.Read on to find out easy to reach pressure points that will give you instant relief from head and migraines and many other problems

1. Joining The Valley

The point is located on your hand between your forefinger and thumb in the web area. Pressing this point can relieve you of a headache, toothache, constipation, hangover, neck pain, shoulder pain. But, do not press this point if you are pregnant as it can cause contractions in the uterus.

2. Third Eye Point

Located between the eyebrows, pressing on this point will give you relief from a headache, eyestrain, insomnia, tiredness, indigestion.

3. Drilling Bamboos

This point is located where the bridge of your nose meets your eye sockets and precisely below the eyebrows. Press these points to relieve from tension headaches and a common cold.

4. Temple Region

These are basically a chain of five points, hairline curve, valley lead, celestial hub, floating white, head portal yin. The hairline curve is close to the tip of your ear and the rest curve around your ear. Pressing these will relieve you of temporal pain. Best result can be achieved if you put pressure on them simultaneously.

5. The Bigger Rushing

It is located on top of your foot between the big and second toe. Apply pressure on this point will relieve you of headaches, foot cramps, and arthritis.

6. Facial Beauty

These points are located on the side of your nostrils and at the bottom of your cheekbones. These points will relieve you of toothache, tension headaches, open sinus.

7. Wind Mansion

Located at the halfway of your spine and ear and if you press it right it will help in relieving eye-pain, unblock nasal congestion, and reduce migraines and headaches.

8. Shoulder Well

It is precisely halfway between your neck base and the point of your shoulders. Along with a headache, it will also relieve you of neckache and stiffness in the neck.

9. Heavenly Pillar

It is located to fingers bellow the base your skull and is the two points on the rope like bones the sides of the spine. These Points relieve you of eyestrain, neck pains, insomnia, stress and aches at the back of the head.

10. Gates of Consciousness

Located bellow the base your skull, in the hollows of vertical neck muscles. Press these points to relieve headaches, arthritis, stiff neck, dizziness, eyestrain, neuro-motor, coordination and irritability.

 

We are Eating a Poison! Here’s How to Identify GMO Tomatoes in 2 Easy Steps!

We are Eating a Poison! Here’s How to Identify GMO Tomatoes in 2 Easy Steps!

Fruits and vegetables, health, healthy food, there are many people who can not identify the GMO tomato. Here we present to you an easy way that will help you identify these tomatoes and know what to eat. The reason for this is the fact that the FDA has decided that, as a consumer, I do not care if you consume tomatoes are a hybrid species with frog genes, so that they become resistant to low temperatures. Some consumers may be concerned about the fact that they eat ‘frankenfood “, but those who do not care can now determine whether the genetically modified fruits and vegetables buying.

We are Eating a Poison! Here’s How to Identify GMO Tomatoes in 2 Easy Steps!

Fruits and vegetables, health, healthy food, there are many people who can not identify the GMO tomato. Here we present to you an easy way that will help you identify these tomatoes and know what to eat. The reason for this is the fact that the FDA has decided that, as a consumer, I do not care if you consume tomatoes are a hybrid species with frog genes, so that they become resistant to low temperatures. Some consumers may be concerned about the fact that they eat ‘frankenfood “, but those who do not care can now determine whether the genetically modified fruits and vegetables buying.

Here is how you can find out: Fruits and vegetables that are grown in the usual way (with the injection of chemicals) are labeled with a code consisting of four digits.

Health tipsLook Younger in 5 Minutes: A Natural Facelift Mask That Left Plastic Surgeons Speechless

Look Younger in 5 Minutes: A Natural Facelift Mask That Left Plastic Surgeons Speechless

Why to be afraid to laugh just to avoid wrinkles? Why suppress your emotions when there is a way to stop their appearance and even erase them from your face? If you prefer natural cosmetic treatments over conventional, this the article for you. It is about a face mask, with lifting effect that not only has the power to prevent wrinkles, but it is very effective in erasing them.

This anti-wrinkles homemade face mask is the best natural solution to get rid of the aging signs. It will tighten, nourish and hydrate sagged skin while giving you more youthful and healthy look. In addition, it is very easy to prepare, and more importantly inexpensive, so not only your face, but your wallet will be thankful too.

Health tips

Look Younger in 5 Minutes: A Natural Facelift Mask That Left Plastic Surgeons Speechless

Why to be afraid to laugh just to avoid wrinkles? Why suppress your emotions when there is a way to stop their appearance and even erase them from your face? If you prefer natural cosmetic treatments over conventional, this the article for you. It is about a face mask, with lifting effect that not only has the power to prevent wrinkles, but it is very effective in erasing them.

This anti-wrinkles homemade face mask is the best natural solution to get rid of the aging signs. It will tighten, nourish and hydrate sagged skin while giving you more youthful and healthy look. In addition, it is very easy to prepare, and more importantly inexpensive, so not only your face, but your wallet will be thankful too.

Ingredients:

  • 1 egg white
  • 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice

Preparation method:

  • Take one medium egg and separate egg white from the egg yolk.
  • Put the egg with in a bowl, and beat until foaming.
  • Then add the lemon juice
  • Continue beating for a few minutes until you get homogeneous mixture.

 

Directions:

  1. The first thing you need to do is to clean well your face. Don’t forget the neck.
  2. Then, make sure your hands are clean, and with the help of your fingertips, take a little of the mixture, and gently with circular movements apply the face mask on the area of wish. You will notice that the mask will begin to dry quickly.
  3.  Leave it on your face for about 5-10 minutes, then remove it with warm or cold water as you prefer.
  4. At the end, apply your favorite moisturizer.

For the best results, you need to repeat this treatment three to four times a week. Believe, you will achieve amazing results !!

But most importantly, if you want always to look young, you have to relax and avoid thinking about problems or anything that give you stress. Try to be surrounded with positive people and people you love. Don’t forget to laugh. Eat more fresh organic food, and drink plenty of water. Try to sleep at least 6-7 hours at night.

How To Quickly Remove Uric Acid Crystallization From Your Body To Prevent Gout and Joint Pain

How To Quickly Remove Uric Acid Crystallization From Your Body To Prevent Gout and Joint Pain

In case you didn’t know, gout is a health disorder that appears in people who have malfunctioning metabolism of uric causes which leads to arthritis in the tiny bones located in their feet. Some of the typical symptoms of gout are stiff and swollen feet and intense sharp pain.

So, gout is triggered by accumulation of uric acid in the joint of the feet that comes as a result of improper removal of waste. Uric acid is an incidental product of purines. These substances can be found in many of the foods modern people consume.

How To Quickly Remove Uric Acid Crystallization From Your Body To Prevent Gout and Joint Pain

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In case you didn’t know, gout is a health disorder that appears in people who have malfunctioning metabolism of uric causes which leads to arthritis in the tiny bones located in their feet. Some of the typical symptoms of gout are stiff and swollen feet and intense sharp pain.

323So, gout is triggered by accumulation of uric acid in the joint of the feet that comes as a result of improper removal of waste. Uric acid is an incidental product of purines. These substances can be found in many of the foods modern people consume.

Increased uric acid levels in the blood also known as hyperuricemia are commonly found in gout sufferers. However, this indicator doesn’t always mean that people suffering from hyperuricemia will experience gout too.

In situations where kidneys are not able to remove the uric acid properly, it starts crystallizing and forming deposits in our joints which lead to inflammation. Fortunately, there are a number of completely natural remedies that are able to remove uric acid crystallization and make people feel much better.

Health tipsHow To Quickly Remove Uric Acid Crystallization From Your Body To Prevent Gout and Joint Pain
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Remove Uric Acid Crystallization

Altering the lifestyle and eating habits is one thing that each of us can do to prevent and eliminate this problem. Our diet should include foods like veggies and fruits, seafood, lean meat and whole grains. Lower the consumption of foods packed with saturated fat and processed sugars and avoid alcohol.

Increasing the amount of water you drink daily is another helpful change. In this way, your body will be hydrated and improve its ability to naturally remove toxins and uric acid. Drink more water, fruit enriched water, fresh juices, herbal tea and try to eliminate stress.

These are some natural solutions that can help you with gout:

It turns out that baking soda is an excellent remedy in cases of gout. Create a mixture that contains half a glass of water and ½ teaspoon of baking soda. Drink it every day. In case you are dealing with gout attacks, you can use one teaspoon in this solution.
If you keep your body’s environment alkalized, you will be able to protect it from the negative effects of gout. That’s why you must increase the intake of alkaline drinks and foods. One good example of a drink like this is lemon juice. It can prevent the buildup of uric acid crystals. Take half a lemon and squeeze it in one glass of lukewarm water. Drink this beverage in the morning before breakfast.
In addition, apple cider vinegar is a type of vinegar that can boost the alkalinity in your body mostly because of the fact that it contains malic acid. This specific type of acid dissolves uric acid and removes them from the body. Take one glass of water (200 ml.) and pour one tablespoon of organic apple cider vinegar. Use this mixture twice a day, before your main meals (dinner and lunch).
When it comes to foods that prevent gout, you can rely on these three foods:

Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric and one of the main reasons why this spice is so healthy. Curcumin protects the kidneys and comes with strong anti-inflammatory properties too.
Pineapples have another active ingredient – bromelain. Bromelain provides powerful anti-inflammatory effects and acts as an analgesic agent too.
Finally, flaxseeds provide numerous health benefits and they also have the ability to lower the uric acid levels in people.

 

Another Pipeline Bursts Endangering Drinking Water Of 6 Million People – Same Company Behind Dakota Access Pipeline

burst

While most of us are enjoying lower gasoline and natural gas prices these days – a big help to the family budget – it is increasingly difficult to defend the oil and gas industry when it keeps polluting our treasured natural resources.

The most recent incident occurred in Pennsylvania, and it involves the same company behind the Dakota Access Pipeline, and which bulldozed ancient Native American burial sites: Sunoco.

A pipeline managed by the company has leaked 55,000 gallons of gasoline into a major waterway, thereby contaminating the drinking water of some 6 million people. The pipeline burst in recent days after heavy rainfall in the area, Natural Blaze reported.

The gasoline streamed into Wallis Run, a tributary of the Loyalsock Creek that eventually drains into the Susquehanna River. The leak was detected very early in the morning after the pressure within the pipeline suddenly dropped in a big way, thereby triggering a pipeline shutdown.

What’s the extent of the damage this time?

“Crews will use skimmers to remove gasoline from the top of affected waterways and will erect containment booms downstream,” Sunoco Logistics said in a statement, as reported by Fortune.

But even after the flow of gasoline within the pipeline was cut off, the same heavy rains that caused the leak continued for several hours, making it impossible to measure the extent of the leak and the damage right away.

The breach led Pennsylvania water authorities to warn customers to hold off from using water from the river for the time being, until environmental authorities can determine the level of contamination, Fortune noted further.

15 Facts About Our National Mammal: The American Bison

On May 9, 2016, President Obama signed the National Bison Legacy Act into law, officially making the American bison the national mammal of the United States. This majestic animal joins the ranks of the Bald Eagle as the official symbol of our country — and much like the eagle, it’s one of the greatest conservation success stories of all time.

In prehistoric times, millions of bison roamed North America — from the forests of Alaska and the grasslands of Mexico to Nevada’s Great Basin and the eastern Appalachian Mountains. But by the late 1800s, there were only a few hundred bison left in the United States after European settlers pushed west, reducing the animal’s habitat and hunting the bison to near extinction. Had it not been for a few private individuals working with tribes, states and the Interior Department, the bison would be extinct today.

Explore more fun facts about the American bison:

 

1. Bison are the largest mammal in North America. Male bison (called bulls) weigh up to 2,000 pounds and stand 6 feet tall, while females (called cows) weigh up to 1,000 pounds and reach a height of 4-5 feet. Bison calves weigh 30-70 pounds at birth

Several large bison standing in a line.

2. Since the late 19th century, Interior has been the primary national conservation steward of the bison. Public lands managed by Interior support 17 bison herds — or approximately 10,000 bison — in 12 states, including Alaska.

Two bison and a bison calf walking in a line.

3. What’s the difference between bison and buffalo? While bison and buffalo are used interchangeably, in North America the scientific name is bison. Actually, it’s Bison bison bison (genus: Bison, species: bison, subspecies: bison), but only saying it once is fine. Historians believe that the term “buffalo” grew from the French word for beef, “boeuf.”

A large bison laying on the grass with three small birds standing on its back.

4.Yellowstone National Park is the only place in the U.S. where bison have continuously lived since prehistoric times. What makes Yellowstone’s bison so special is that they’re the pure descendants (free of cattle genes) of early bison that roamed our country’s grasslands. As of July 2015, Yellowstone’s bison population was estimated at 4,900 — making it the largest bison population on public lands.

A bison walking by a steaming hot spring in bright sunlight.

5. What’s a “red dog”? It’s a baby bison. Bison calves tend to be born from late March through May and are orange-red in color, earning them the nickname “red dogs.” After a few months, their hair starts to change to dark brown and their characteristic shoulder hump and horns begin to grow.

A bison and calf nuzzle each other.

6. The history of bison and Native Americans are intertwined. Bison have been integral to tribal culture, providing them with food, clothing, fuel, tools, shelter and spiritual value. Established in 1992, the Inter Tribal Buffalo Council works with the National Park Service to transfer bison from national park lands to tribal lands

A small herd of bison standing on a grassy hill with mountains behind them.

7. You can judge a bison’s mood by its tail. When it hangs down and switches naturally, the bison is usually calm. If the tail is standing straight up, watch out! It may be ready to charge. No matter what a bison’s tail is doing, remember that they are unpredictable and can charge at any moment. Every year, there are regrettable accidents caused by people getting too close to these massive animals. It’s great to love the bison, but love them from a distance.

A bison watching over a calf.

8. Wind Cave National Park’s herd helped revive bison populations around the country. The story starts in 1905 with the formation of the American Bison Society and a breeding program at the New York City Zoo (today, the Bronx Zoo). By 1913, the American Bison Society had enough bison to restore a free-ranging bison herd. Working with Interior, they donated 14 bison to Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota. More than 100 years later, the bison from Wind Cave have helped reestablishing other herds across the United States and most recently in Mexico.

A small herd of bison lounging in the dirt.

9. Bison may be big, but they’re also fast. They can run up to 35 miles per hour. Plus, they’re extremely agile. Bison can spin around quickly, jump high fences and are strong swimmers

A bison charging through a river.

10. Pass the salad, please. Bison primarily eat grasses, weeds and leafy plants — typically foraging for 9-11 hours a day. That’s where the bison’s large protruding shoulder hump comes in handy during the winter. It allows them to swing their heads from side-to-side to clear snow — especially for creating foraging patches. Learn how bison’s feeding habits can help ensure diversity of prairie plant species especially after a fire.

bison in the deep snow

11. From hunter to conservationist, Teddy Roosevelt helped save bison from extinction. In 1883, Teddy Roosevelt traveled to the Dakota Territory to hunt bison. After spending a few years in the west, Roosevelt returned to New York with a new outlook on life. He paved the way for the conservation movement, and in 1905, formed the American Bison Society with William Hornaday to save the disappearing bison. Today bison live in all 50 states, including Native American lands, wildlife refuges, national parks and private lands.

A bison stands in a meadow surrounded by trees.

12. Bison can live up to 20 years old. The average lifespan for a bison is 10-20 years, but some live to be older. Cows begin breeding at the age of 2 and only have one baby at a time. For males, the prime breeding age is 6-10 years. Learn how Interior works to ensure genetic diversity and long-term viability of bison.

bison herd on the move

13. A little dirt won’t hurt. Called wallowing, bison roll in the dirt to deter biting flies and help shed fur. Male bison also wallow during mating season to leave behind their scent and display their strength.

A bison rolling in the dirt.

14. The American bison’s ancestors can be traced to southern Asia thousands of years ago. Bison made their way to America by crossing the ancient land bridge that once connected Asia with North America during the Pliocene Epoch, some 400,000 years ago. These ancient animals were much larger than the iconic bison we love today. Fossil records show that one prehistoric bison, Bison latiforns, had horns measuring 9 feet from tip to tip.

Bison standing in the snow.

15. Bison are nearsighted — who knew? While bison have poor eyesight, they have excellent senses of smell and hearing. Cows and calves communicate using pig-like grunts, and during mating season, bulls can be heard bellowing across long distances.

A bison standing in front of a park information sign.

Why Do So Many Americans Think They Have Cherokee Blood?

150929_HIST_Cherokee

“I cannot say when I first heard of my Indian blood, but as a boy I heard it spoken of in a general way,” Charles Phelps, a resident of Winston-Salem in North Carolina, told a federal census taker near the beginning of the 20th century. Like many Americans at the time, Phelps had a vague understanding of his Native American ancestry. On one point, however, his memory seemed curiously specific: His Indian identity was a product of his “Cherokee blood.”

The tradition of claiming a Cherokee ancestor continues into the present. Today, more Americans claim descent from at least one Cherokee ancestor than any other Native American group. Across the United States, Americans tell and retell stories of long-lost Cherokee ancestors. These tales of family genealogies become murkier with each passing generation, but like Phelps, contemporary Americans profess their belief despite not being able to point directly to a Cherokee in their family tree.

Recent demographic data reveals the extent to which Americans believe they’re part Cherokee. In 2000, the federal census reported that 729,533 Americans self-identified as Cherokee. By 2010, that number increased, with the Census Bureau reporting that 819,105 Americans claimed at least one Cherokee ancestor. Census data also indicates that the vast majority of people self-identifying as Cherokee—almost 70 percent of respondents—claim they are mixed-race Cherokees.

Why do so many Americans claim to possess “Cherokee blood”? The answer requires us to peel back the layers of Cherokee history and tradition.

Most scholars agree that the Cherokees, an Iroquoian-speaking people, have lived in what is today the Southeastern United States—Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama—since at least A.D. 1000. When Europeans first encountered the Cherokees in the mid–16th century, Cherokee people had well-established social and cultural traditions. Cherokee people lived in small towns and belonged to one of seven matrilineal clans. Cherokee women enjoyed great political and social power in the Cherokee society. Not only did a child inherit the clan identity of his or her mother, women oversaw the adoption of captives and other outsiders into the responsibilities of clan membership.

As European colonialism engulfed Cherokee Country during the 17th and 18thcenturies, however, Cherokees began altering their social and cultural traditions to better meet the challenges of their times. One important tradition that adapted to new realities was marriage.

The Cherokee tradition of exogamous marriage, or marrying outside of one’s clan, evolved during the 17th and 18th centuries as Cherokees encountered Europeans on a more frequent basis. Some sought to solidify alliances with Europeans through intermarriage.

It is impossible to know the exact number of Cherokees who married Europeans during this period. But we know that Cherokees viewed intermarriage as both a diplomatic tool and as a means of incorporating Europeans into the reciprocal bonds of kinship. Eighteenth-century British traders often sought out Cherokee wives. For the trader, the marriage opened up new markets, with his Cherokee wife providing both companionship and entry access to items such as the deerskins coveted by Europeans. For Cherokees, intermarriage made it possible to secure reliable flows of European goods, such as metal and iron tools, guns, and clothing. The frequency with which the British reported interracial marriages among the Cherokees testifies to the sexual autonomy and political influence that Cherokee women enjoyed. It also gave rise to a mixed-race Cherokee population that appears to have been far larger than the racially mixed populations of neighboring tribes.

Europeans were not the only group of outsiders with which 18th-century Cherokees intermingled. By the early 19th century, a small group of wealthy Cherokees adopted racial slavery, acquiring black slaves from American slave markets. A bit more than 7 percent of Cherokee families owned slaves by the mid-1830s; a small number, but enough to give rise to a now pervasive idea in black culture: descent from a Cherokee ancestor.

In the early 20th century, the descendants of Cherokee slaves related stories of how their black forebears accompanied Cherokees on the forced removals of the 1830s. They also recalled tales of how African and Cherokee people created interracial families. These stories have persisted into the 21st century. The former NFL running back Emmitt Smith believed that he had “Cherokee blood.” After submitting a DNA test as part of his 2010 appearance on NBC’s Who Do You Think You Are, he learned he was mistaken. Among black Americans, as among Americans as a whole, the belief in Cherokee ancestry is more common than actual blood ties.

Slaves owned by Cherokees did join their owners when the federal government forced some 17,000 Cherokees from their Southeastern homeland at the end of the 1830s. Cherokee people and their slaves endured that forced journey into the West by riverboats and overland paths, joining tens of thousands of previously displaced Native peoples from the Eastern United States in Indian Territory (modern-day eastern Oklahoma). We now refer to this inglorious event as the Trail of Tears.

But the Cherokee people did not remain confined to the lands that the federal government assigned to them in Indian Territory. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Cherokees traveled between Indian Territory and North Carolina to visit family and friends, and Cherokee people migrated and resettled throughout North America in search of social and economic opportunities. While many Native American groups traveled throughout the United States during this period in search of employment, the Cherokee people’s advanced levels of education and literacy—a product of the Cherokee Nation’s public education system in Indian Territory and the willingness of diaspora Cherokees to enroll their children in formal educational institutions—meant they traveled on a scale far larger than any other indigenous group. In these travels it’s possible to glimpse Cherokees coming into contact with, living next door to, or intermarrying with white and black Americans from all walks of life.

At the same time that the Cherokee diaspora was expanding across the country, the federal government began adopting a system of “blood quantum” to determine Native American identity. Native Americans were required to prove their Cherokee, or Navajo, or Sioux “blood” in order to be recognized. (The racially based system of identification also excluded individuals with “one drop” of “Negro blood.”) The federal government’s “blood quantum” standards varied over time, helping to explain why recorded Cherokee “blood quantum” ranged from “full-blood” to one 2048th. The system’s larger aim was to determine who was eligible for land allotments following the government’s decision to terminate Native American self-government at the end of the 19th century. By 1934, the year that Franklin Roosevelt’s administration adopted the Indian Reorganization Act, “blood quantum” became the official measure by which the federal government determined Native American identity.

In the ensuing decades, Cherokees, like other Native American groups, sought to define “blood” on their own terms. By the mid–20th century, Cherokee and other American Indian activists began joining together to articulate their definitions of American Indian identity and to confront those tens of thousands of Americans who laid claim to being descendants of Native Americans.

Groups such as the National Congress of American Indians worked toward the self-determination of American Indian nations and also tackled the problem of false claims to membership. According to the work of Vine Deloria, one of NCAI’s leading intellectuals, “Cherokee was the most popular tribe” in America. “From Maine to Washington State,” Deloria recalled, white Americans insisted they were descended from Cherokee ancestors. More often than not, that ancestor was an “Indian princess,” despite the fact that the tribe never had a social system with anything resembling an inherited title like princess.

So why have so many Americans laid claim to a clearly fictional identity? Part of the answer is embedded in the tribe’s history: its willingness to incorporate outsiders into kinship systems and its wide-ranging migrations throughout North America. But there’s another explanation, too.

The Cherokees resisted state and federal efforts to remove them from their Southeastern homelands during the 1820s and 1830s. During that time, most whites saw them as an inconvenient nuisance, an obstacle to colonial expansion. But after their removal, the tribe came to be viewed more romantically, especially in the antebellum South, where their determination to maintain their rights of self-government against the federal government took on new meaning. Throughout the South in the 1840s and 1850s, large numbers of whites began claiming they were descended from a Cherokee great-grandmother. That great-grandmother was often a “princess,” a not-inconsequential detail in a region obsessed with social status and suspicious of outsiders. By claiming a royal Cherokee ancestor, white Southerners were legitimating the antiquity of their native-born status as sons or daughters of the South, as well as establishing their determination to defend their rights against an aggressive federal government, as they imagined the Cherokees had done. These may have been self-serving historical delusions, but they have proven to be enduring.

The continuing popularity of claiming “Cherokee blood” and the ease with which millions of Americans inhabit a Cherokee identity speaks volumes about the enduring legacy of American colonialism. Shifting one’s identity to claim ownership of an imagined Cherokee past is at once a way to authenticate your American-ness and absolve yourself of complicity in the crimes Americans committed against the tribe across history.

That said, the visibility of Cherokee identity also owes much to the success of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes. Today, the Cherokee Nation, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, and the Eastern Band of Cherokees comprise a combined population of 344,700. Cherokee tribal governments provide community members with health services, education, and housing assistance; they have even teamed up with companies such as Google and Apple to produce Cherokee-language apps. Most Cherokees live in close-knit communities in eastern Oklahoma or the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina, but a considerable number live throughout North America and in cities such as New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Toronto. Cherokee people are doctors and lawyers, schoolteachers and academics, tradespeople and minimum-wage workers. The cultural richness, political visibility, and socioeconomic diversity of the Cherokee people have played a considerable role in keeping the tribe’s identity in the historical consciousness of generation after generation of Americans, whether or not they have Cherokee blood.

East Bay man sentenced in Petaluma horse abuse case

An East Bay man was sentenced Thursday for abandoning an injured and emaciated horse along a country road in Petaluma.

Jonathan Garcia, 37, of Pinole received six months in jail with the possibility of work release or electronic home confinement, and three years probation during which he may not own a horse.

He also was ordered to pay more than $4,000 in restitution to animal advocates and the county to cover veterinary costs for the horse, Jerome, who was nursed back to health and has since been adopted by a Bodega Bay woman.

Garcia remains free on bail pending his January turn-in date.

The more than 25-year-old Appaloosa was abandoned in July 2015, not far from speeding traffic on Lakeville Highway. He was malnourished and had a roofing nail lodged in his hoof.

A woman walking her dog in the area spotted him being let out of a horse trailer. An investigation led to Garcia, a handyman, who pleaded no contest to felony animal abuse and misdemeanor abandonment.